Infertility is the diminished ability of a couple to conceive a child over a two-year period whether due to a known cause or not.

Causes of Female infertility

  • Ovarian dysfunction (eg. Polycystic ovaries)
  • Tubal disease (commonly caused by gonnorhoea, chlamidya or any pelvic infection, eg. appendicitis or diverticulitis)
  • Endometriosis – causes scarring intra-abdominal inflammation and blockage of the tube
  • Age-related changes – decline in quality and quality of oocytes (egg cells)
  • Uterine abnormalities – eg. congenital (from birth), acquired (uterine fibroid)
  • Cervical abnormalities – the quality of cervical mucus is important for sperm penetration and maturation.

Causes of Male Infertility

  • Abnormal semen parameters -abnormal sperm production and maturation are caused by low testosterone levels, obesity and endocrine diseases. Numerous other factors influence sperm production and maturation, including alcohol abuse, smoking, drugs and toxins.
  • Ejaculatory Duct obstruction – causes impairment of sperm transport. This can be due to complication of surgery, or infections.
  • Erectile dysfunction – may be due to vascular, metabolic or psychological problems.

Treatment depends on the underlying cause and includes:

Hormonal therapy, correction of any congenital or acquired defects, optimization of any other medical condition and counselling.