Common Gynaecological problems

Post-coital Bleeding

Post-coital bleeding (bleeding after sex) could be a sign of infection, trauma, an ectropion or tumours and should be investigated. You should consult with your doctor so as to establish the cause.



Endometriosis is defined as endometrial tissue at abnormal sites. It is a common gynaecological condition which effects mainly women of child-bearing age and can cause debilitating pain and fertility problems. It undergoes cyclical changes like the normal endometrium (i.e. the lining of the uterus) but does not shed, therefore causing problems at the site. Scarring can occur, causing blockage of the tubes leading to infertility.


Polycystic Ovaries

This is another common condition effecting women of reproductive age. It is characterised by suppression of ovulation, high androgen levels, and hirsutism (abnormal hair growth). Apart from increasing susceptibility to diabetes, the patient also has fertility problems and increased risk of endometrial cancer.

Unfortunately Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can't be cured; however the symptoms can be treated and managed. There are various treatment options available, as someone suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may experience different symptoms. These include:

  • A change in lifestyle by opting to lose weight, exercise more
  • Hormone treatment, including some types of the oral contraceptive pill or anti-androgen drugs which inhibit the effects of male hormones on the body
  • Diabetes medication - metformin to increase the body's sensitivity to insulin
  • Clomifene- a fertility drug which corrects the hormone imbalance.
  • Laser treatment


Amenorrhoea is when periods stop completely can be due to a number of reasons:

  • Pregnancy
  • Malnutrition
  • Hormonal Imbalance
  • Menopause
  • Certain medications


The treatment will depend on the cause. The pictures below show possible causes of primary and secondary amenorrhoea.


                 Primary Amenorrhoea                                          



              Secondary Amenorrhoea



Menorrhagia is consecutive months of atypically heavy periods. Although in most cases there are no underlying causes, it can be caused by uterine fibroids, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) and anticoagulant medication.